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Outcomes for implementation research: conceptual distinctions, measurement challenges, and research agenda

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Outcomes for implementation research: conceptual distinctions, measurement challenges, and research agenda
Enola Proctor, Hiie Silmere, Ramesh Raghavan, Peter Hovmand, Greg Aarons, Alicia Bunger, Richard Griffey, Melissa Hensley
Adm Policy Ment Health. 2011 Mar;38(2):65-76.
An unresolved issue in the field of implementation research is how to conceptualize and evaluate successful implementation. This paper advances the concept of “implementation outcomes” distinct from service system and clinical treatment outcomes. This paper proposes a heuristic, working “taxonomy” of eight conceptually distinct implementation outcomes-acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity, implementation cost, penetration, and sustainability-along with their nominal definitions. We propose a two-pronged agenda for research on implementation outcomes. Conceptualizing and measuring implementation outcomes will advance understanding of implementation processes, enhance efficiency in implementation research, and pave the way for studies of the comparative effectiveness of implementation strategies.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-010-0319-7